What is brain trauma?
The effects of brain trauma vary widely: minor brain trauma requires no or only outpatient treatment. Intensive care and an operation are required in case of a severe injury, and brain trauma can even be fatal with injuries of the most severe nature. As different as the effects are, all versions are summarised under the term brain trauma.
The causes are varied. In principle, a force acts on the skull and this injures the brain. This occurs frequently in traffic accidents or falls. People of all ages can therefore be affected in principle.
Based on current results of the World Health Organisation (WHO), some 54 to 60 million people worldwide incur a traumatic brain injury each year. 2.2 to 3.6 million of these injuries are moderate to severe. More than 280,000 people are affected in Germany each year, including around 73,000 children and youths.
What are the consequences of brain trauma?
The classification according to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) has established itself to determine the severity of brain trauma. 13-15 points indicate minor, 9-12 points moderate and 3-8 points severe brain trauma. Combined with further neurological examination results, the value that is determined provides a clear prognosis for the patient. Whether what is known as whiplash trauma without the direct exertion of force on the skull can cause a brain injury and actually constitutes brain trauma is frequently discussed.
When the nervous system is impaired as a result of brain trauma, this affects the mobility of the body, sometimes also in the long term. Occupational and physical therapy combined with orthoses or also functional electrical stimulation helps relearn certain movements or compensate for limitations as well as possible.